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(1990). ), Ethics, metaphysics and religion in the thought of F.H. (1993). prescribed from an ideal point of view. One can choose whether she wants to be a mother but not the norms governing the relationship between daughter and mother, and thus not what she is required to do as a mother (this, however, does not mean that she is unable to evaluate and criticise her duties). London: Oxford University Press. Ideal morality is “no longer relative to the societies in which we live”. Associative Political Obligations. And Did Kant Think It Does? The discussion centres on a descriptive anti-individualist thesis that declares the supremacy of the social whole over the individual and argues that a person is fully determined by education, custom, race, national, and cultural determinants. (ES, 203-4). Note, Bradley writes that identity with others is one of the essential characteristics of a person, but does not claim that personhood is reduced to relations with others. It is hard to see how Bradley could accept the MSID theory even with “amendments” or “supplements”: to presuppose that he does, one must either believe that Bradley himself is unaware of the seriousness of his argument, or be able to come up with a good explanation of how Bradley’s “own theory” avoids these charges. Keene (Ed. Positional duties represent context-relative obligations as they depend on the broader context of one’s life. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. volume 2, pages195–211(2019)Cite this article. 129-130 n. 1). Social requirements are justified by values which are institutional facts (see Anscombe 1958; Searle 1995), i.e. Daly (1963) concludes Bradley’s ethics is undeveloped, while Brink thinks Bradley is in danger of “moral parochialism” (2007, p. 112). Keene, C. (2009). From that text we can see that Bradleywould have sided with the Twentieth Century communitarians who opposedthe individualistic political theories of Rawls and Nozick (seeKymlicka, Chapter 4). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press. I will reconstruct Bradley’s exposition of the MSID theory (Sect. moral obligation, social roles, T. H. Green, F. H. Bradley, Hegelian ethics, social command. In an essay written over a century ago the philosopher F.H. The theory’s limitations consist in the reduction of morality to existing social institutions: “We have thus seen the community to be the real moral idea, to be stronger than the theories and the practice of its members against it, and to give us self-realization. ), Ethics and Basic Rights. The distinction between social and moral points of view is straightforward in Bradley (1999), where he opposes social organism to morality: “Self-realization covers everything. Brink (2007) points to problems with Bradley’s Essay V, demonstrating the difference between Green and Bradley. He wasthe fourth child and eldest surviving son of Charles Bradley, aprominent Evangelical preacher, and his second wife, Emma Linton. What is the ideal point of view? I suggest it prescribes those positional duties which are justified by the norms governing pre-institutionalised relationships.Footnote 4. Skelton On Sidgwick’s “My Station and Its Duties” 187. It is one of the financial secretary's primary duties to receive all payments due to the company in a timely manner. But why? The concept of religion in ES and its relation to morality is a topic for separate research. In Ph. Continuing his critique of individualism and atomism in Principles of Logic (1883), Bradley attacked the method of Mill's inductive logic by holding that judgment and inference cannot begin with isolated, particular facts. Crossley, D. (1989). The ideal is social because it reflects existing social practices. (1999): Notes towards Ethical Studies [c. 1874-5]. This higher point of view, I argue, is the ideal point of view.Footnote 22. Bradley [Book Review]. F.H. The Moral Organism. Bradley. Here are some examples of the dominant interpretation. That can not be attributed to me in my character of member in the organism. This amounts to saying that my performing an act must not contradict the ideal of the person that I aspire to be. Oxford: Clarendon Press. My main concern is whether, according to Bradley, we are morally obliged to perform our positional duties. The ideal point of view, thus, has direct practical relevance: it informs the agent about the existing obstacles to achieving the desirable state of affairs and prescribes a course of actions that is required for the achievement of the state of affairs where the value is fully realized. ES, 180). Title: My Station and Its Duties Created Date: 5/22/2008 8:19:57 AM In G. LaFrance (Ed. I argue that, according to F. H. Bradley’s Ethical Studies, duties of our station (positional duties) are not morally obligatory unless they are required from an ideal point of view. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. New York: Cambridge University Press. While the universalizability principle holds that what is required from me under specific conditions is required from anyone in the same situation, the particularization principle reads that an action that is required from everyone in a given situation is also required from me when I am in that situation.Footnote 25. The ideal point of view is informed by the knowledge of the “true human nature” (ES, 192),Footnote 24 the highest of human values. London: Oxford University Press. ), Collected Works of F.H. Bradley’s second argument (ES, 203-206) is against MSID’s normative thesis, and it consists in denying the bottom-up thesis (the reduction of ought to is). For instance, the MSID theory derives the normative thesis (and specific claims about what one ought to do and which actions/persons are right/good) from the descriptive thesis (statements about a matter of fact) because the theory employs the bottom-up idealization (reducing what ought to be to what is). “Metaphysics and Ethics in Bradley’s Idealism”. III. I am thankful to Timo Airaksinen, William Mander, Elizabeth Frazer, Peter Nicholson, and James Connelly for their comments on the drafts of this paper. The elaboration of the MSID theory takes the form of a dialogue between the doctrine’s adherent (voiced by Bradley) and a hypothetical critic. And this is indeed limitation” (ES, 201). Below I list the most important of them, accompanied, where possible, by counter statements from ES. Box 24, 00014, Helsinki, Finland, You can also search for this author in 100-1), James Bradley suggests that the MSID theory, which “represents the first theoretical elaboration of the nascent vocational ethic of service which went hand-in hand with the newly emergent ‘professions’” and is based on “the ethical self-definition of the expanding professional middle-classes in order to secure … the ‘organic’ interpretation of self and society” is “condemned” in ES, inter alia, because Bradley “finds it impossible ethically to legitimate any prevailing social order” (1996, pp. For Bell, the “[t]he true focus of Ethical Studies is to be found … in … ‘My Station and its Duties’” (1984, p. 55). I distinguish between the generic descriptive, normative, and ideal theses, each of which include a number of claims. These are conditional duties which apply only if I agree to be a part of this institution. As applied to my example, this means that, being a part of such a tradition, the parent may not know whether honour killing is morally justified and obligatory, but she has a prerogative of doubt and must use it. Ideals and Illusions. However, by doing so, the MSID theory reveals its shallow standards as it does not take into account intentions, does not require anything beyond action pertaining to one’s positional duties, and does not permit evaluating authority and everyday rule-of-thumb morality. If my interpretation is valid, then the important—albeit latent—message that Bradley tries to give us with his confusing analyses of “my station and its duties” is: any demand that others put on us in virtue of our relations to them can be regarded as a moral demand when it is justified from the ideal point of view. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Nicholson, P.P. Moral badness has more forms than failing to perform one’s positional duties: a person “can only forget his faults when he is too busy to think about them; and he can hardly be so always. View this article on JSTOR. 60-1). Here are the most important of his reasons. Bradley, F.H. Bradley as a Political Philosopher. The generic descriptive thesis that it is a matter of fact, supported by cultural and historical observations, that society has authority over an individual, determining what she is and, through laws and custom, dictating what she ought to do. (1984). [Counter claim: “[M]an is not much above the beasts unless more than social” (ES, 223, see also 203-4)]; Determinism: custom, hereditary features, national and racial characteristics determine personhood (ES, 166-169); Social psychology: for some, performing their positional duties, obeying the law and custom, is all that is morally required; for others, morality is associated with ideals representing demands of a higher order than social (ES, 205; 214-215); Sociological claim: there is historical evidence that people exhibit social behaviour (ES, 170) and societies superimpose their will over the will of individuals (ES, 165); Cultural claim: in existing societies, laws, custom, and tradition represent institutionalised norms (e.g. Ethical Studies. For the MSID theory, there is no difference between morality and politics: “Personal morality and political and social institutions can not exist apart” (ES, 188). I will demonstrate that the relationship between positional duties and moral obligation in ES is properly approached via the normative concept of the moral ideal and the revised MSID thesis (Sects. Simmons, A. In Essay V, duties are social because they are authorised by existing social institutions; in Essay VI, because their realization is conditional upon our relations with other people: “They directly involve relation to other men, and, if you remove others, you immediately make the practice of these virtues impossible” (ES, 221). Sparked by Sidgwick’s review of ES (1876), the vulgar view gained popularity, as Keene (2009) suggests, due to Ross’s (1951) edition of ES without Essays VI-VII. 1. Bell, D. (1984). Oxford: Clarendon Press. This rhetorical strategy allows the presentation of arguments as if they were coming from the doctrine’s adherent. 5). A worry about corruptness must be motivated by considerations other than those of social morality. The phrase must be understood as a category that (1) refers to different concepts throughout Ethical Studies (i.e. Like in a job description, positional duties are attributed or “pertain” to (ES, 176) the station or role itself, and the person acquires these only when she occupies the respective station or attains the respective role. (1996). The acceptability of these values is independent of one’s preferences and one’s belonging to any group or institution. Moral obligations are universalizable because they are justified by reference to values which are unconditionally accepted on the ground of rationality. Second, the reduction of the moral community to existing social communities is unjustified: [I]f we accept … the fact that the essence of a man involves identity with others,Footnote 21 the question what the final reality of that identity is, is still left unanswered: we should still have to ask what is the higher whole in which the individual is a function, and in which the relative wholes subsist, and to inquire whether that community is, or can be, a visible community at all. This ethics has been characterized as “my station and its duties,” after the title of a well-known essay by the British Hegelian F.H. New York: Cambridge University Press. Vol. London: Watts & Co. Stern, R. (2013). Bradley’s inclusion of “my station and its duties” in the moral ideal must be understood as amounting to the claim that a positional duty is morally obligatory only when it is justified by the norms governing pre-institutionalised relationships. Many questions are left unanswered: Is it implied that Bradley’s non-social duties are supererogatory? This is done for the sake of argument. I interpret Bradley’s saying that the most important contribution to the content of the moral ideal comes from “my station and its duties” as this statistical claim. In terms of the more recent debates aboutLiberal neutralit… 13 ‘Duty and Virtue Are Moral Introversions’, Kantian Ethics: Value, Agency, and Obligation, 1 Kant, Moral Obligation, and the Holy Will, 2 Constructivism and the Argument from Autonomy, 5 Moral Scepticism, Constructivism, and the Value of Humanity. When morality is reduced to institutionalised traditional norms, “unless morals varied, there could be no morality; that a morality which was not relative would be futile, and I would have to ask for something ‘more relative than this’” (ES, 189). Bradley Ethical Studies. While in the former norms depend on the imperfect knowledge of “the truth of the human nature” that people have at a given period of time and location, in the latter norms reflect the truth of human nature, are objective and universalizable. 34-5). Such values refer to the historical facts, practices, and beliefs of people belonging to the specific society or institution, and thus are institutional facts. The ideal point of view is a thought experiment that removes hindrances for the full realization of some desirable state of affairs and allows one to see what has to be changed in the real world so that what, so far, ought to be, can become real. Bradley’s Ethics of Feeling. ), The Impact of Idealism. As a member of society where honour killing is a traditional way of purifying the family, a parent knows what he is expected to do and why; he knows his duty, and he knows that he is justified by the long history of his society and its values. (ii) Morality. (iii) Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (1958). However, honour killing has no justification outside this particular tradition, and therefore cannot be obligatory in the moral sense. My station and its duties ([Youth's library) [Cheap, Eliza] on Amazon.com. This passage is crucial for understanding the relationship between positional duties and moral obligation in ES: It is necessary to remark that the community in which [the moral man] is a member may be in a confused or rotten condition, so that in it right and might do not always go together. Justification and Legitimacy: Essays on Rights and Obligations. Finally, Bradley separates his own voice from that of the doctrine’s adherent in a full-fledged criticism. As a rule, commentators believe that moral duties in ES are either duties to others or that some of them are duties to oneself (see, e.g., Candlish 1978, p. 164). In MacEwen, Ph. Exeter and Charlottesville: Imprint Press. The Construction of Social Reality. Mander, W.J. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42048-019-00049-0, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42048-019-00049-0, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in 1. If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian. The latter I take to mean traditional beliefs about what is necessary for a successful performance of social roles together with corresponding social practices, which have been turned into a standard. First, it refers to a final, conclusive reason that a person has for acting; something she, all things considered, ought to do, compared to having some reason to do. All Rights Reserved. My Station and Its Duties Hardcover – December 31, 1846 by By The Author Of "The Last Day Of The Week" (Author) The ideal point of view is that of a universalized agent. Ideal which is not is and is not realized in me. Before a conclusion can be drawn from any of these theses, Bradley’s position towards it has to be determined. Ideal Arts & Humanities. Searle, J.R. (1995). View this article's JSTOR metadata. An important ethical question concerning “my station and its duties” is its relation to moral obligation and moral right(good)/wrong(bad). Mander takes a similar stance, saying that Bradley, albeit admitting “‘very serious objections’ to his theory” because “there is more to ethics than just my station and its duties”, claims that it is the most important content of the good self, to which are ‘added’ social ideals or aspirations and the pursuit of truth and beauty (2011, pp. Marina Paola Banchetti - 1992 - Idealistic Studies 22 (1):11-27. Note, Bradley does not say that one must not obey when the society is in a rotten state. Ethics since 1900. More on “my station and its duties”: Wright (1984) analyses the concept of the moral organism and concludes that Bradley did not understood the term. Next, Bradley analyses what appears to be the MSID theory’s advantage: identifying herself with her station and obeying social commands, the person achieves her realization in the concrete-universal whole (Bradley’s way of saying that the person’s actions are that of the universalized moral agent). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In W. Sweet (Ed. Irwin, T. (2009). [Counter thesis: the top-down ideal thesis, according to which what ought to be is irreducible to what is (moral ideals are irreducible to existing models, the ideal self is irreducible to social relations (ES, 205)), and reality is altered to become ideal (e.g., the moral goal consists in the realization of the ideal of human nature). For descriptive relativism, see Timmons (2002, 43 ff.). My Station and Its Duties. The transition from exposition to criticism is latent because of Bradley’s idiosyncratic method. Bradley’s Moral Psychology. (Ed. The Political Philosophy of the British Idealists. Deontological and utilitarian solutions are unavailable for Bradley. Apparently, the MSID theory is ill equipped for that. For instance, whether one has a duty to defend family honour depends on whether one occupies a specific role (father) and whether in one’s society this specific task (defending family honour) is a traditional way (socially recognised) of fulfilling that social role. Bradley, I argue, does not imply such a thing, and this is clear from his adoption of the top-down idealization tactic (changing reality to meet the ideal).Footnote 16 Failing to distinguish between these claims leads to a confused picture of Bradley’s point of view in ES. Bradley. Oxford: Clarendon Press. My visit to Oxford was supported by Oscar Öflunds Stiftelse. Nicholson and Mander try to strengthen what appears to be a weakness in Bradley’s position by saying that he reserves a way to override social morality in case it turns out to be based on corrupted principles. Vol. I have at least two reasons to think so: Bradley’s criticism of the reduction of ought to is, and what can be seen as an argumentum ad absurdum showing that accepting the MSID theory yields serious moral problems. 190-1). Zeitschrift für Ethik und Moralphilosophie It is because ‘my station and its duties’ teaches us to identify others and ourselves with the station we fill; to consider that as good, and by virtue of that to consider others and ourselves good too. Rashdall, H. (1907). (1981). Believing that she is good just so long as she is performing her positional duties is a form of self-delusion or extreme faith. (MacNiven 1996, pp. E.g., Wollheim (1969), Nicholson (1990), and Keene (2009) do not differentiate between (b) and (d) as they claim that the moral ideal includes existing social duties. On positional duties, see Simmons (1981). Introduction. In C.A. With modifications, this view consists of a belief that the MSID theory, after acknowledgment of its limitations, is mostly accepted by Bradley with some corrections or additions that are described in Essay VI under the title “Ideal Morality”. This chapter considers the idea of ‘my station and its duties’ as it figures in the work of T. H. Green and F. H. Bradley, who pioneered its significance. The person relates the human ideal to the specific condition of her life, her relationship with others, the ideas about human excellence common for her time, as well as her intellectual and aesthetical aspirations. Bradley does not imply that it is formed on the basis of personal preferences or whims. (1962). Journal of Philosophical Research, 19, 1‑8. [Counter claim: the only criterion of moral evaluation is a person’s striving for her ideal (ES, 247 ff.).]. London: Oxford University Press. Despite the ambiguity of Bradley’s terminology, given the general development of his argument, it is obvious that, in Essay VI, “my station and its duties” no longer refers to positional duties. Here the station which is, is realized in me. The Moral Philosophers: An Introduction to Ethics. One must be able to connect specific social requirements with the values by which the given society justifies the requirements (internal values), and then be able to compare this value to another value, which is independent from the normative code of her society (external values). 1) and which claims are associated with it (Sect. Bradley, J. 80-81, n. 38). My Station and its Duties: Ideals and the Social Embeddedness of Virtue. 39-49). What to do when your retail employees are standing around and your store is not busy... You probably don’t mind them taking a well-deserved break after a stressful customer or … She has to abandon the social point of view and evaluate social values from a higher point of view, ensuring that they are not morally reprehensible. Another one who has shirked duty (and ALL have shirked it). From these descriptive claims the MSID theory infers its normative thesis: since the individual is fully reduced to a social function, this determines what she should be. Harmondsworth: Allen Lane. The Guards hitch up their belts and look around for another one who has been lazy, ineffective. Perfectionism and the Common Good. Common morality is a stage of the development of human spirit towards true Morality. Or is Bradley understood as latently proposing that there are “two moralities”, i.e. More specifically, there are two important aspects of moral obligation. This is a retrospective essay on Henry Sidgwick's "My Station and Its Duties" written to mark the 125th anniversary of Ethics. Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2015, DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198722298.001.0001, PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). has identified with the moral ideal. And he can not always see that his faults do not matter to the moral order of things: when it comes to that he can only trust” (ES, 203; see also 214). Simmons (1981) argues that moral obligation is not conditioned by positional duties. date: 02 December 2020, Social Role Accounts of Obligation in Green and Bradley. Wollheim, R. (1962). - 188.8.131.52. In the abovementioned quote, Bradley opens up the possibility of doubting that one’s positional duty is in all cases one’s moral obligation. (ES, 182-183), The reductio ad absurdum reaches its apex in a lengthy ironic passage exposing the superficiality of the MSID theory’s generic normative theses. A society can only be said to be corrupt in the light of an external standard representing a value of a higher order. I do not find this satisfactory because Bradley sees moral progress as self-realization (i.e. FAQs It tells which actions, required in virtue of one’s relationship with others, are also morally obligatory, i.e. ‘My Station and Its Duties’: Social Role Accounts of Obligation in Green and Bradley. California: University of California Press. Just the presence of a police station can make a community or neighborhood safer, regardless of what's inside it. The thesis says that what we are morally obliged to do often coincidesFootnote 3 with what we are required to do in virtue of our relationship with others, where the obligation is constituted by what others have a reason to expect from us from an ideal point of view. Henry Sidgwick - 1893 - International Journal of Ethics 4 (1):1-17. The last two essays … are devoted to further elaboration of this notion” (1971, p. 9). Pages 183-189 of ES depict the psychological make-up of a person embracing the MSID theory, turning it into an ode to the “moral organism” with lengthy quotes from Hegel. On Bradley and communitarianism see, e.g., Simmons (2001, pp. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Hence we see that what I have to do … [is] to fill my place—the place that waits for me to fill it; to make my private self the means, my life the sphere and the function of the soul of the whole, which thus, personal in me, externalizes both itself and me into a solid reality, which is both mine and its. He temporarily adopts the point of view he is discussing, writing as if he has already accepted it. From within social morality, there is no way of thinking that social practices, norms, and demands are corrupt. Many commentators seem to not distinguish between these four usages. My Station and Its Virtues. Depending on the context, this phrase may refer to: The MSID theory, described and criticised in Essay V. The theory is based on the Hegelian concept of Sittlichkeit and includes various descriptive and normative claims, most of which Bradley denies. And Did Kant Think It Does? For Nicholson, Bradley, despite believing that the MSID theory cannot explain the content of our ideal selves, does not reject the MSID theory because it “supplies the larger, and the most important, part of [their] content” (1990, p. 33). My explanation is this. The ideal point of view makes possible the top-down identification of ought and is because it gives direction to changing reality to fit the standard of perfection; it does not lower the standard to reflect reality. Correspondence to London: Palgrave-Macmillan. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. The moral point of view is not supplemented by the ideal; it is the ideal point of view. While as this shows, the outlook of ‘my station and its duties’ does not represent Bradley’s final position, it is here that the core of his account of ethical duties lies and it is therefore on this chapter that the identificatory accounts of his position have focused – so this will also form the centrepiece of our discussion, but where, in accordance with the structure of the book, this cannot properly be … With variations, Bradley’s “my station and its duties” is understood as a thesis that, because of our social nature, we achieve our self-realization only when we are a part of a social whole,Footnote 8 and that our duties come from the station we occupy.Footnote 9 It is a position of conformity to the rules and customs of one’s society. 1&2, 65-87. Here ideal which (for faith is) is realized in me by faith” (214). *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This is a classic ethical work that will be valuable both to those studying the ethical theories discussed, and to … The moral goal is the reproduction of social reality, and the ideal self is the idealised social self. Many, e.g., Nicholson (1990) and Keene (2009), presuppose that the first element of the moral ideal is based on bottom-up idealization. Open access funding provided by University of Helsinki including Helsinki University Central Hospital. The good news is that, due to the work of Wollheim (1969, 1962), Candlish (1978), and Nicholson (1990), the vulgar view (e.g., Rashdall 1907, Sabine 1915, Santayana 1933, Stebbing 1948, Krook 1959) identifying Bradley’s moral views with the theory that he describes as “my station and its duties” is no longer accepted,Footnote 5 and Bradley’s connection with conservativismFootnote 6 and communitarianism,Footnote 7 if not dismissed, is no longer taken for granted. Bradley then gradually takes its main claims and arguments to the extreme, exploring its limitations and consequences. N. Boyle, L. Disley, I. Coper (Eds. I suggest that “my station and its duties” is a rubric embracing a bundle of claims and theses: some Bradley accepts, some he denies; some are a part of the MSID theory, some belong to his critique of the MSID theory. Dina Babushkina. In addition to being a social requirement, an act must also be required from the ideal point of view. The dominant view either takes Bradley’s objections to the MSID theory too lightly, or assumes that Bradley does not consider them morally significant.
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